Cook edamame in boiling water with ½ teaspoon salt for 3 minutes. Drain in a colander, reserving ¾-cup liquid. Rinse under cold water until cool.
In a small saucepan, add 1 T. oil and garlic, cook over low heat, stirring occasionally, until garlic is pale golden, approximately 2-3 minutes.
Purée 2 cups edamame with garlic-oil mixture in a food processor until smooth. With motor running, add ½ cup reserved edamame cooking liquid in a stream.
Add remaining cup of edamame, lime juice, honey, pepper, remaining tablespoon oil, and remaining ½ teaspoon salt and pulse until slightly lumpy. Add remaining ¼ cup cooking liquid to thin if desired, and then stir in cilantro.